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I need replies to those 2 discussions. Use in-text citation 1. Why is it importa

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I need replies to those 2 discussions. Use in-text citation
1. Why is it important to examine racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare?
It is essential to continuously examine racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare to ensure equal treatment, especially as nurses, as we spend the most time with patients. We serve as our patients’ advocates, so it is vital for us in our role to voice when patients are receiving inadequate care and management due to racial and ethnic backgrounds. We should also keep in mind that environmental and social factors, such as employment and education, can contribute to experiences of disparities (Smedley et al., 2003). Bringing in outside factors creates complexity to the situation and makes it difficult, and sometimes feels impossible, for possible resolutions. Disparities also include diseases that are prevalent among specific racial or ethnic groups compared to others. An example would be how Black Americans are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than White patients. The National Institutes of Health (2018) states that Black people are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes, increasing over 30 years. Improving patient-centered care and self-management includes delving into other risk factors contributing to the higher rate. In the case of diabetes, looking into the residential areas is an essential risk factor to consider. Where I live, there is a McDonald’s down the street from me, a Popeyes about two streets away with three convenience stores within the four corners of my street, and a Keyfood as the only grocery store within walking distance. Such neighborhoods, especially those low or middle in socioeconomic status, could lack access to healthier and affordable dietary options (Chlebowy, 2017). Poor dietary consumption is known to contribute to the development of diabetes, so this illustrates how these external factors contribute to these disparities. References
Chlebowy, D. O., Coty, M.-B., Fu, L., & Hines-Martin, V. (2017). Comorbid diabetes and depression in African Americans: Implications for the health care provider. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 5(1), 111–116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0349-x
National Institutes of Health. (2018). Factors contributing to higher incidence of diabetes for Black Americans. Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. 2003. Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. The National Academy Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12875.
Discussion 2:
It is important to examine racial and ethnic disparities because of issues with health insurances and socioeconomic factors. Ethnic disparities became costly in healthcare, and it is problematic in some communities. African American and Hispanic patients were reported to have greater difficulty than whites in receiving medical care at a designated location (Institute of Medicine, 2003). According to statistics, 8% of whites, 16% of blacks, 22% of Hispanics, and 26% of Asian Americans were reported by facing difficulty in accessing specialists (Institute of Medicine, 2003). For example, black patients who are uninsured with diabetes are less likely to have an office visit with a cardiologist or ophthalmologist. The patients may not have enough funds or have no interest in checking with the specialist. Those patients are not educated by healthcare personnel to know the benefits and risk factors of the disease to receive proper care. In contrast, the patients with Medicare benefits have easy accessibility for office visits and treatments (Institute of Medicine, 2003). Another example is Covid-19. About 20% of African Americans suffered with Covid-19 (NIH, 2021). It was also reported that 22% of African Americans had died with the virus (NIH, 2021). The data showed that the percentage of African Americans are higher than other ethnic groups (NIH,2021). The officials from CDC were making efforts to encourage this ethnic group to take the vaccine for protection and reduction in hospitalizations. The main goal is to increase awareness of ethnic communities, reduce disparities in the communities, and promote health education and equity to all ethnic groups.
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare. Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226112875
National Institutes of Health. (2021, July 08). Covid-19 Racial and Ethnic Disparities.
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